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Therapy and Interventional

Clinical References - Scientific Literature

Find the highest quality clinical studies committed to helping healthcare professionals provide better patient care on a daily basis through the Esaote’s high performance imaging systems and advanced technologies.
The collection of the most important scientific literature relevant to a particular question represents the scientific evidence to improve clinical accuracy in managing patients and develop the clinical practice guidelines.
By identifying the most critical challenges facing patient care today, clinicians and imaging professionals can increase confidence and gain new opportunities to learn, judge and experience innovative modalities and procedures in everyday clinical practice.

Imaging-Guided Procedures


  • [1] Mauri G, Cova L, De Beni S, Ierace T, Tondolo T, Cerri A, Goldberg SN, Solbiati L., “Real-Time US-CT/MRI Image Fusion for Guidance of Thermal Ablation of Liver Tumors Undetectable with US: Results in 295 Cases”, Cardiovascular Interventional Radiology 2014 May 8
  • [2] Enzo Di Mauro, Marco Solbiati, Stefano De Beni, Leonardo Forzoni, Sara D’Onofrio, Luigi Solbiati, “Virtual Navigator Real-Time Ultrasound Fusion Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography for Liver Interventions”, 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Osaka, Japan, 3 - 7 July, 2013


  • [3] Villa, F. Chiesa, I. Rosenberg, A. Tagliafico, M. Perinetti, A. Del Prato, “MRI and ultrasound guided prostate biopsy using the fusion imaging technique”, ECR 2013 Congress


  • [4] Prada F, DelBene M, Mattei L, Casali C, Fillippini A, Legnani F, Mangraviti A, Saladino A, Perin A Richetta C, Vetrano I, Moiraghi A, Saini M, DiMeco F., “Fusion Imaging for intra-operative ultrasound-based navigation in neurosurgery”, Journal of Ultrasound 2014, 17:243-251 DOI:10.1007/s40477-014-0111-8
  • [5] Prada F, DelBene M, Mattei L, Lodigiani L, Kolev V, DeBeni S, Casali C, Legnani F, Perin A, Saladino A, Solbiati L, Sakas G, DiMeco F., “Pre-operative magnetic resonance and intra-operative ultrasound fusion imaging for real-time neuronavigation in brain tumor surgery”, Ultraschall. In press, 2014

Improved visualisation of nerves for safer RA procedures

  • [1] Peris A, Zagli G, Bonizzoli M, Cianchi, Ciapetti M, Spina R, Anichini V, Lapi F, Batacchi S, "Implantation of 3951 Long-Term Central Venous Catheters: Performances, Risk Analysis, and Patient Comfort After Ultrasound-Guidance Introduction", Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2010 Nov;111(5):1194-201. doi: 10.1213
  • [2] Wegener J, Hollmann M, Stevens M, "Value of an electronic tutorial for image interpretation in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia", Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 2013 Jan-Feb; 38(1):44-9
  • [3] Szerb J, Greenberg J, Kwofie M, "Histological confirmation of needle tip position during ultrasound-guided interscalene block: a randomized comparison between the intraplexus and the periplexus approach", Canadian Journal Anesthesia (2015) 62:1295–1302

The Relevance of Needle Visibility in Intervention Procedures

  • [1] Kilicaslan A, Topal A, “Ultrasound-Guided Multiple Peripheral Nerve Blocks in a Superobese Patient” - Case reports in Anaesthesiology, 2014, article ID 896914.
  • [2] Aksoy M, Dostbil A, “Continuous spinal anaesthesia versus ultrasound-guided combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block for hip replacement surgery in elderly high-risk patients: a prospective randomised study” - BMC Anesthesiology, 2014, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2253-14-99.
  • [3] Beigmohammadi M, Tavakoli F, “Sciatic Nerve Block in Tetanus: A Case Report” - Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, 2015, Vol 5, e29698.

Neck Ultrasonography and Ultrasound-Assisted Procedures

  • [1] Ragazzoni F et al., High diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer reliability of real-time elastography in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, July 2012: 38(7): 1154-62
  • [2] Calliada F, Canepari M, Ferraioli G, Filice C, Esaote: ElaXto Sonoelastography, in Sono-Elastography Main Clinical Applications, EDIMES Srl Edizioni Medico Scientifiche – Pavia, ISBN 978-88-88541-09-9
  • [3] Chin S, Perlas A, Needle Visualization in Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia: Challenges and Solutions - Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 2008: 33 (6): 532–544.
  • [4] Duger C, Isbir A, The Importance of Needle Echogenity in Ultrasound Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study - International Journal Medical Sciences, 2013: 10(9): 1108–1112.
  • [5] Koski J, Hammer H, Ultrasound-guided procedures: techniques and usefulness in controlling inflammation and disease progression - Rheumatology, Oxford Journal, 2012: Vol 51: vii31-vii35.